Presenter Martin F. Shapiro, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H. Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Public Health, UCLA Why has it been so difficult to solve the problems of American health care? In exploring this question, Dr. Martin Shapiro draws on research and theory in the social sciences, humanities, health services and education as well as his own experiences. He explores this issue by examining the roles of patients and the public, clinicians and their professional organizations, medical schools and their faculty, clinical corporations, scientists and the NIH, manufacturers, insurers and investors, and of government in perpetuating the current system. He identifies commodification of health care and of life, the “consciousness” of the various actors (their values, perceived needs, interests, expectations, and capacities) and the communication and toxic relationships among these groups as phenomena that interact to undermine progress. He concludes that, while many things can be done to achieve some improvement, broader societal change will be needed to create a health system that is humane, effective, and just. This event includes a presentation, followed by discussion moderated by Drs. Rodney Hayward and Eve Kerr.